Tag Archives: orthorexia

New Paleo dieters face heavy social and cultural resistance.

Besides all the usual challenges, like giving up fast food, processed food, grains, legumes, dairy, sugars, seed oils and all the rest, they have to overcome a lifetime of media, academic, and government conditioning.

This acculturation affects friends, family and acquaintances as well as the dieter. Input from this social sphere generally resists the perceived “drastic” steps Paleo dieters must take—even in the face of dramatic health and body composition improvements.

Worse yet is the inconsistent reception new dieters get from the medical profession. Many physicians remain nonplussed and are often under-educated or even hostile to Paleo and other diets that avoid refined carbohydrates, industrialized grain- and seed oil-based foods.

Most Paleo dieters have grown up hanging on their doctor’s every word and lack of firm physician support can quickly undermine their resolve.

Dietitians often abet this confusion, as most still cling to the conventional “food pyramid” paradigm (low fat, high fiber, heavy on refined carbs.)

Dietitians may also be the first to suggest that many of the new dieter’s behaviors might indicate an eating disorder called orthorexia nervosa.

 

Orthorexia Nervosa: Making yourself sick pursuing health?

Dr. Steven Bratman coined the phrase “orthorexia nervosa” in 1996, when he published the book Health Food Junkies. [1]

He used the term, casually at first, to describe obsessive behaviors related to “healthy eating” or “pure foods.” Dietitians and mental health professionals gradually adopted it as a diagnostic descriptive term.

Public awareness grew also, mostly on the Internet.

Today, orthorexia–though never acknowledged by the medical profession as a formal diagnosis–is now prominently featured on the National Eating Disorders Association website. [2]

The NEDA discusses orthorexia with the same gravity as bulimia, anorexia, pica and other “accepted” obsessive or compulsive eating disorders.

The condition can be fatal. On his website, Dr. Bratman describes an instance of orthorexia-induced starvation, leading to heart failure. [3]

Grave health problems should be taken seriously–but as orthorexia surfaced on social media and the Web in the early 2000’s, many expressed doubts or even hostility both toward the concept and Dr. Bratman himself.

 

What, exactly, is orthorexia?

Dr. Bratman calls it “an unhealthy obsession with healthy food” and considers it similar to anorexia.

The [2] gives these “warning signs and symptoms:”

  • Compulsive checking of ingredient lists and nutritional labels
  • An increase in concern about the health of ingredients
  • Cutting out an increasing number of food groups (all sugar, all carbs, all dairy, all meat, all animal products)
  • An inability to eat anything but a narrow group of foods that are deemed ‘healthy’ or ‘pure’
  • Unusual interest in the health of what others are eating
  • Spending hours per day thinking about what food might be served at upcoming events
  • Showing high levels of distress when ‘safe’ or ‘healthy’ foods aren’t available
  • Obsessive following of food and ‘healthy lifestyle’ blogs on Twitter and Instagram
  • Body image concerns may or may not be present

Orthorexics seek “purity,” not necessarily weight loss–though they may effectively starve themselves thin (like anorexics) by restricting supposedly impure or unhealthy foods.

Adverse health impacts range from social (withdrawal, estrangement, superiority complex, unbalanced or extreme food-related behaviors) to major medical: malnutrition, starvation, neurosis and death. [4]

 

Controversy over signs and symptoms

Taken at face value, the inclusion of ingredient-checking, sincere concern over ingredients, cutting out certain food groups, keen food- or health-blog interest, and distress over lack of healthy food choices seems provocative—possibly even targeted at dieters who resist conventional paradigms.

Large, successful populations of these dieters, including thousands of Paleo adherents, routinely implement these behaviors. The perceived demonization of these widely accepted practices has generated pushback.

Many see this “diagnosis” as suspiciously aligned with corporate and government interests.

Dr. Bratman’s website includes a “hatemail” page, showing accusations of collusion with government, Big Pharma, and other corporate interests. [5] (Dr. Bratman reports that he has made very little money from his original book, and has no financial relationship with any of the above-named entities.) [5]

He also clarifies that healthy dieting, itself, is not obsessive behavior.  

 

The unfortunate power of medical language

Nevertheless, the new dieter or casual reader can easily be alarmed when told they are showing symptoms of an eating disorder. Articles like Orthorexia: do you have an unhealthy obsession with healthy eating? by Emily Fonnesbeck  surface periodically, reminding the public of “the dangers of eating clean.” [2]  

Readers outside the medical profession may also be confused when dietitians and psychologists express this apparent concern, but also mention that “orthorexia is not an official diagnosis.”

(The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, also called “the DSM” or “DSM-5,” does NOT include orthorexia as a separate, stand-alone eating disorder. Literally, providers can’t code bills for treating orthorexia yet.) [7]

None dispute that “orthorexic” patients, who pathologically obsess over “healthy” diet and food behaviors, really exist. For now, most providers classify and treat these genuinely ill persons similarly to anorexic or OCD patients.

However, careless (or carefully selective?) use of the NEDA symptoms list and medical terminology should still be viewed with suspicion. All too often, hasty or undiscerning readers will assume they are ill—when in fact they are not.

Stampeding gullible or tentative dieters using this language can only serve—artificially and needlessly–to increase the patient population.

 

Heal the sick, not the dieters.

Eating disorders can be very serious. Raising awareness of any eating disorder can save families and lives. Any information that brings a truly ill patient in for treatment is good information.

Paleo newcomers must also remember that strict dietary observance is not obsessive behavior–and that conscientious dieters don’t need to be herded into medical offices…to be screened “just in case.”

Dr. Bratman’s website offers his authorized ,” which clearly distinguishes between normal and obsessive dietary pathways. Interested readers should try it.  [8]

 

[Author’s note: this article is not meant to disparage any health condition. No one should ignore any eating disorder. See your doctor if you think you are ill.]

 

REFERENCES

[1] Introduction to orthorexia nervosa by Dr. Steven Bratman, retrieved

[2] National Eating Disorders Association introduction to Orthorexia, including  the video “The Dangers of Dieting and Clean Eating,” retrieved

[3] History of a patient’s demise, recounted by Dr. Steven Bratman, retrieved

[4] Health consequences of eating disorders from the National Eating Disorders Association website, retrieved

[5]  “Hatemail” page at the website of Dr. Steven Bratman, retrieved

[6] KSL.com, “Orthorexia: do you have an unhealthy obsession with healthy eating?” by Emily Fonnesbeck, RD,  6/26/2018, retrieved

[7] American Mental Health Foundation, “Orthorexia Nervosa: not in the DSM-5” by Evander Lomke, 11/7/2016, retrieved

[8] The Authorized Bratman Orthorexia Self-Test, created by Dr. Steven Bratman, retrieved

 

Mom, Can I Eat It? The Slippery Slope of Food Choices | The Paleo Diet

“Can I try the bread,” my four year old asks me, when our server automatically delivers it to our table.  It was the first time she asked to eat a , when I didn’t have a Paleo-friendly alternative, such as an almond flour cupcake at a celebration, and I felt ill-prepared to answer. I had a split second to make a decision: if I said no what message would that send, and if I said yes what implications would that have on future choices? How do you discern when your Paleo child will eat grains?

Hunter-gatherers didn’t have to navigate this complex issue. They followed a simpler rule: catch it or find it, and you can eat it. It’s a slippery slope for families with Paleo kids today as they are surrounded by a world of wheat-based processed foods – frozen pizza and mile high frosted cupcake birthday parties, all you can eat waffle fundraiser breakfasts, bags of cheesy fish shaped crackers, and cinnamon bunnies at the playground. I think we can all agree, Paleo or not, that the nutritional standards for American children can be improved with an increase in vegetables,1,2 more Omega-3 rich fats,3 and less sugar.4

For most families, the Paleo Diet is not about keeping their children thin, but rather providing the most nutrient-dense foods to fuel physical growth and brain development.5  Foods that our DNA demands for overall health and to help our Paleo kids thrive.6 Children understand the connection between what they eat and how they feel.7 For example, too much fruit might lead to a stomachache, and too much sugar has them practically bouncing off the walls while riding an emotional roller coaster.8 However, we want to teach them about the benefits of following the Paleo Diet without developing a paranoia about eating the “right” food, called orthorexia nervosa9,10,11 so that they continue to make Paleo choices more often than not when they are living independently.

Identifying food choices for your family and children is a very personal decision based on numerous individual factors. Although, The Paleo Diet permits the 85:15 rule, allowing up to three non-Paleo meals per week, may be more generous than you choose to be with your own child.

When determining whether your Paleo kids should eat grains, legumes, or dairy, consider the following:

  • How does your child act and feel after eating the non-Paleo food? Food sensitivities can manifest with runny noses, stomach upset, and itchy skin up to one week after exposure.12
  • What ways do you model a healthy relationship with your own choices around the Paleo diet lifestyle?
  • How would your child react or would they comprehend the idea of eating three non-Paleo meals a week? For some Paleo kids this is more easily understood than others.
  • Does your child feel left out or restricted13 when she sees her peers’ choices during school lunch, play dates, and parties? For many offering Paleo-friendly foods that mimic what other children eat can be useful, such as pizza made with a cauliflower crust and raw cookies made with dates, cocoa, and nuts.

So, how did I answer my daughter, when she asked to try bread for the first time? I said yes. I want to support her curiosity to try new things, especially pertaining to vegetables and different spices and flavors. Most importantly, I don’t want her to be afraid of certain foods without first experiencing them for herself.  Even at her young age, she’s aware of how they make her feel, such as when she eats dairy products they lead to terrible stomach pains.

Whatever balance you find between Paleo and non-Paleo foods for your own Paleo kids, communicate your philosophy to them so they can understand how to best make their own dietary choices when the time arises.

 

REFERENCES

[1] Hendy, Helen M., et al. “Overweight and average-weight children equally responsive to “Kids Choice Program” to increase fruit and vegetable consumption.” Appetite 49.3 (2007): 683-686.

[2] Dennison, Barbara A., Helen L. Rockwell, and Sharon L. Baker. “Fruit and vegetable intake in young children.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition17.4 (1998): 371-378.

[3] Dearden, Claire, Pat Harman, and David Morley. “Eating more fats and oils as a step towards overcoming malnutrition.” Tropical doctor 10.3 (1980): 137-142.

[4] Lustig, Robert H., Laura A. Schmidt, and Claire D. Brindis. “Public health: The toxic truth about sugar.” Nature 482.7383 (2012): 27-29.

[5] Jew, Stephanie, Suhad S. AbuMweis, and Peter JH Jones. “Evolution of the human diet: linking our ancestral diet to modern functional foods as a means of chronic disease prevention.” Journal of medicinal food 12.5 (2009): 925-934.

[6] Cordain, Loren, et al. “Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 81.2 (2005): 341-354.

[7] Canetti, Laura, Eytan Bachar, and Elliot M. Berry. “Food and emotion.”Behavioural processes 60.2 (2002): 157-164.

[8] Goldman, Jane A., et al. “Behavioral effects of sucrose on preschool children.”Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 14.4 (1986): 565-577.

[9] Donini, L. M., et al. “Orthorexia nervosa: a preliminary study with a proposal for diagnosis and an attempt to measure the dimension of the phenomenon.”Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity 9.2 (2004): 151-157.

[10] Fidan, Tulin, et al. “Prevalence of orthorexia among medical students in Erzurum, Turkey.” Comprehensive psychiatry 51.1 (2010): 49-54.

[11] Bartrina, Javier Aranceta. “[Orthorexia or when a healthy diet becomes an obsession].” Archivos latinoamericanos de nutricion 57.4 (2007): 313-315.

[12] “Food Allergy and Food Intolerance.” (EUFIC). N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2015.

[13] Urbszat, Dax, C. Peter Herman, and Janet Polivy. “Eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we diet: effects of anticipated deprivation on food intake in restrained and unrestrained eaters.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology 111.2 (2002): 396.

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